Introduction Recently captive insurance arrangements have been scrutinized all over the world by tax authorities as they are believed to be vehicles that encourage profit shifting. The OECD, in the BEPS Action Plan, had considered captive insurance arrangements as a major area of concern. In fact, in the recently released 2018 OECD discussion draft on…

Introduction One of the advantages multinational groups enjoy over standalone companies is that their members have access to each other’s resources (such as, e.g., funding). In particular, less capable entities can boost their credibility if a related entity provides them with a performance guarantee, i.e., pledges to fulfill their contractual obligations in case they fail…

Introduction One of the most controversial topics of transfer pricing, in today’s multinational world, is the pricing of intercompany financial transactions. The 2017 OECD transfer pricing guidelines (TPG) lack clear rules specifically tailored to financial transactions, which can lead to a higher risk of divergent treatment of these transaction between tax administrations and taxpayers and…

The Existing Framework: Nexus and Profit Attribution Rules Under the current Double Taxation Avoidance Agreement (DTAA) framework, business profits are in principle taxable in the State of residence of the enterprise. However, the source (market) jurisdictions may tax the profits if a permanent establishment (PE) is triggered therein. A PE arises when the non-resident operates…

Introduction The financial crisis had made multinational enterprises (MNE) look inward for funding options, as external sources of capital were not readily available. Among various intra group-financing possibilities, cash pooling among group members is undoubtedly one of the most important tools to facilitate cash management. Even though tax authorities recognize the commercial rationale of such…