The legal framework of the activities carried out by public bodies The Value Added Tax (VAT) is a consumption tax paid by entities or individuals who, independently, carry out an economic activity, whatever the purpose or results of that activity. Although Council Directive 2006/112/EC (the VAT Directive) does not establish a definition of economic activity…

Last month witnessed the release of the operative part of the award of the Permanent Court of Arbitration (‘PCA’) in the dispute initiated by Vodafone’s Dutch entity against Government of India (‘GOI’) under the India-Netherlands Bilateral Investment Treaty (‘Indo-Dutch BIT’). It is understood that the detailed award has been withheld in view of the request…