The classification of transactions comprising several elements, features, and acts[1] is a complicated and prominent issue in the EU’s common system of VAT. It is also a popular topic for discussion and analysis which is often explored in the literature. The purpose of this post is to contribute to that discussion by presenting certain perspectives…

VAT is a broad-based tax on final consumption by households. Even if, due to the invoice-credit mechanism through which the tax is normally levied, only final consumption is ultimately targeted, VAT uses each transaction taking place at every stage of the production and distribution process as taxing points. Depending on how a transaction is classified,…